Research on Innovative Operation Mode of Express Delivery End Link
[Abstract] With the rapid development of express delivery industry, the “short board effect” at the end of express delivery is becoming more and more obvious. Based on the concept of customer satisfaction and resource integration, this paper establishes a “three-level express delivery model”. Taking “express terminal service center” as the main breakthrough point, the paper introduces the innovative operation mode of express terminal service. The operation system of the service center includes business system, business process system and business support system. Through the improvement of the three major systems, a diversified, diversified, resource-saving and environment-friendly express terminal operation mode has been established.
Express delivery is a new business adapted to the rapid development and fast pace of the market economy. Since 1990, the scale of China’s express delivery industry has expanded rapidly, from 3.343 million in 1990 to 9.19 billion in 2013, with an average annual growth rate of 38.9%. Especially at the end of 2006, the reform of China’s postal system entered the practical operation stage. Since then, China’s express delivery companies have adhered to the road of market-oriented operation, resulting in a period of rapid development of China’s express delivery market. The end of express delivery refers to the “last kilometer” of express delivery, which is the last link of express delivery. The development of express delivery terminal largely determines the development prospect of express delivery industry. In the next few years, the express delivery industry will still develop at a high speed in terms of volume, while the integration at the end of the express delivery industry has just begun. How to bring up the “qualitative” change of terminal service capability requires that its stakeholders should pay more attention to terminal distribution. Under the mode of commodity economy, a high-efficiency and large-scale express terminal operation mode can effectively support the development of express delivery industry.
1. Research Status of Express Terminal Operation Mode At present, the terminal of express delivery industry mostly adopts the mode of network service or temporary service point. Express delivery personnel can provide on-site service according to the needs of users. The terminal network has the characteristics of small investment and flexible operation. However, these outlets are generally located in urban areas and have poor connections. Poor timeliness of on-site service; The courier service attitude is poor, and the temporary service point management confusion also exists management confusion, express arbitrarily placed, unable to improve user satisfaction. Therefore, a brand-new terminal operation mode is needed-based on the concept of resource integration and multi-service operation, taking improving the quality of express terminal service as the breakthrough point, and establishing an express terminal service center through cooperation with upstream express enterprises. The service center takes green recycling as its main business and creates an original “secondary packaging” mode, implementing intensive “dispatch” and “receipt” . In terms of policies, the industry should establish unified express packaging standards and service standards in the express delivery industry, and strengthen the restriction on over-packaging and the training of express delivery personnel’s business ability. At the same time, the responsibility of the business process links should be clearly assigned, and the compensation system should be improved so as to provide users with better end express service .
When building express terminal service system, unit express terminal equipment based on advanced logistics technology is essential. Automation unit Express Terminal Equipment is based on advanced technologies such as Internet of Things technology, communication network technology, electronic control technology, etc. to realize automation, informatization and modularization of terminal equipment and ensure informatization management and automatic control of express terminal business processes. Finally, the function and location of the express delivery terminal equipment have absolutely eliminated the structure of the express delivery terminal distribution network, and in the actual layout process, the scientific layout should be implemented with the inventory location, transportation distance, transportation cost and customer satisfaction as reference factors .
2. Express terminal innovation operation mode
2.1 Three-level Express Delivery Mode With the development of commodity economy, the speed of commodity circulation has accelerated, and the flattening of channels and specialization of labor division have “forced” the innovation of express delivery mode. To this end, this paper designs a “three-level express delivery mode” combining logistics park and express terminal service center. Level 1: realize the flow between express delivery city logistics parks through intercity trunk transportation; The second level is to realize the flow of express between the logistics park and the express terminal service center through the city’s inter-district vehicles. Level 3: “Express Terminal Service Center” provides express delivery and related services to users. The material carriers of the “three-level” distribution mode are mainly logistics parks and express terminal service centers. The three-level distribution system requires the integration and absorption of the existing express delivery resources to the maximum extent to realize the large-scale effect of express delivery. Under the guidance of the government and social organizations, scientific and reasonable industry service and management standards are formulated to ensure standardized operation of the industry. The three-level logistics distribution system can reduce the flow of express mail, reduce losses, reduce waste of social resources and optimize social resources. This article focuses on the express terminal service center.
2.2 Business Model of Express Terminal Service Center Express terminal service centers set up express delivery platforms, and third-party operators are responsible for the daily operation of the service centers. The business model of the service center is based on the market-oriented operation. Express mail, advertising materials, experience products and resource recycling products of the enterprises settled in the terminal service center are arranged according to certain elements to ensure the rationalization of the spatial pattern and the interaction and coordination among various elements so as to enhance the service capability.
(1) Service object positioning. Firstly, the conceptual differences between “customer” and “user” are elaborated. There is no essential difference between the two, “customer” refers to the object that has a trade relationship with the service center, while “user” refers to the object that uses products or services. Therefore, for the express terminal service center, “customer” refers to the e-commerce enterprise and the express enterprise, while “user” refers to the express consumer. The government and social organizations as supervision and management agencies are responsible for formulating standard service standards, while express delivery service centers make corresponding profits by providing standardized services for “customers” and “users”.
(2) Integration of resources. E-commerce enterprises (e.g. campus express delivery system established by Alibaba Group) or leading express delivery enterprises lead the establishment of “express terminal service center”, and use the advantages of leading enterprises to quickly integrate terminal resources and provide better service to obtain more user resources (express users hope to solve the current chaotic express terminal system, and the terminal service center caters to the users’ mentality). The service center can provide professional, stable and high-quality services to service clients, gather scattered and scattered end resources with advanced information platforms and rich customer resources, realize scale effect and strengthen risk control.
(3) Intensive service. The terminal service center can provide users with “all-round” intensive services. The service center designs corresponding service services according to the characteristics of each link of the business process. Under the unified scheduling of the service center, the service center provides service objects with services such as advertising, product experience, receiving and sending services, payment collection, resource recovery, etc. The service center can also provide consulting services to customers (e-commerce enterprises and express delivery enterprises) according to the results of customer satisfaction survey.
3. Express Terminal Service Center Operation Mode Express terminal operation system includes three parts: terminal service system, terminal service process and service support system. The operation system is independently operated by a third-party “express terminal service center”, and three service systems are designed according to the business needs of customers settled in express enterprises, e-commerce enterprises, etc. In the process of providing services for customers, the customer satisfaction survey is implemented, and the end business system and service support system are optimized according to the feedback of customer satisfaction, so as to optimize and redesign a more reasonable end business process, and form a circulation system, thereby improving customer experience and customer experience.
3.1 Business System and Business Process System The terminal business process mainly includes: handover part management process, which is the main process of the express terminal, and damaged parts (or misplaced parts) processing process, which is mainly responsible for the traditional express business. In the process of express delivery, there is the possibility of damage or misplacement, so the processing flow of damaged parts (or misplaced parts) is an indispensable part of the main flow. The end business process should follow the following principles: ① Design business process with “customer as the center”; (2) Business process, business system and service support system need to be integrated and coordinated. At the same time, a “user satisfaction” survey should be conducted in a timely manner through the service center’s website or in the process of providing services, and optimization of business process, business system and service support system should be conducted according to the analysis results of “user satisfaction”; (3) For process nodes with risks, corresponding measures should be taken to avoid risks.
The traditional service mainly refers to the existing and well-run service of the existing express terminal system, including express receiving and dispatching service and payment collection service. During the implementation of traditional services, there are several “service vacuum” zones between the customer and the express terminal service center: the time period after the customer signs the order for on-site service; The period of time that the customer waits in the service center when self-service is offered; When customers disassemble parts, there is waste of packaging. Value-added services are to fill these “business” vacuum.
Value-added services include advertising, resource recovery and commodity experience. Based on the concept of O2O, the express terminal service center will be turned into a customer experience center.
1) Traditional Express Service The main business of the express delivery business process is express delivery, which realizes the circulation between the users and the express delivery terminal service center. The main business includes on-site service and user self-promotion. The express service center can collect the payment for goods and the service fee when the user takes the goods.
2) Resource Recovery Business Express packages include cartons, transparent tapes, express bags, inflatable foam and other fillers, many of which are difficult to be naturally degraded. However, according to the five uniform packaging standards in China, many express delivery services are over-packaged. The development of resource recovery business is imminent. (1) The government should establish a processing system for classified packaging recycling as soon as possible, introduce incentive policies, and punish enterprises that fail to comply with classified packaging recycling. (2) Express leading enterprises should take the lead in formulating express packaging standards and packaging recycling mechanisms. Standardized packaging for easy recycling; Appropriate packaging, convenient disassembly; Reduce the use of refractory materials. (3) Express Terminal Service Center should actively carry out publicity on resource recovery and put policies and systems in place.
3) Experiential Express Service Through the establishment of a large number of open service center stores to form a courier terminal distribution platform. Relying on a large number of user resources, the platform can carry out a series of value-added services, such as advertising business and commodity experience service, and build into O2O physical examination store.
Advertising business. The express terminal service center uses the opportunity of direct contact with customers to carry out advertising in the place of the express terminal service center or at the time of door-to-door business. The terminal service center can publicize the service center’s business through exhibition boards, videos, leaflets, sales souvenirs and other forms to improve users’ awareness and enhance their brand image. At the same time, the publicity of express delivery companies, e-commerce companies and other customers and their products and services will enhance the popularity of the contracted customers.
Commodity experience business. Provide three-dimensional display equipment and electronic terminals, which can display the products of e-commerce enterprises in 360 degrees, and automatically demonstrate the functions and operation methods of products, such as fitting clothes, matching commodity accessories according to one’s own preferences, etc. Customers can choose the electronic terminal of the service center to place orders according to the results of commodity experience (for example, the elderly in the community will not use the electronic terminal, and the service center can assign special personnel to be responsible for training), or use the user’s own electronic terminal to place orders.
3.2 Service Support System The service support system is used to support the business system and business process system of “Express Terminal Service Center”, mainly including: quality training of express personnel, establishment of functional express system and customer satisfaction survey.
1) Information Management Service System The express delivery information management system at the end of express takes the user’s express as the main service object, and carries out the whole process of computer information tracking processing from the time the express enters the service center until the express reaches the user. The information management service system can give timely warning and prompt for information such as vehicle inspection of express shipments and transportation vehicles that need urgent treatment, and abnormalities in the process of express delivery. The information management system can simplify the process management of distribution, facilitate personnel and vehicle scheduling, exception management and cost calculation, and standardize business processes. The main business includes: tracking management of express delivery, query analysis, report statistics and generation; At the same time, as an access point for users to feedback information, it is convenient for users to put forward opinions on the use of express service.
2) Service concept and express delivery personnel training system The express terminal service center follows the service concept of “taking users as the center, standardization as the criterion and smiling service as the purpose”. The government should effectively regulate the express delivery employees’ business operation and business implementation standards to improve their professional quality. When recruiting employees, express terminal service centers need to set recruitment standards and strictly control the recruitment. At the same time, we will increase investment in education for new recruits and create high-quality talents. While strengthening the training of employees, perfecting the employment mechanism and improving the overall salary level of employees are also the supplementary contents of the training system.
3) Self-lifting Point Service System The self-pick-up point has the characteristics of long business hours and close proximity to residential areas, which can facilitate customers to flexibly pick up and send items according to their own time. The modes of self-lifting point include: functional express box system and retail self-lifting point system. The former can adopt two modes of self-purchase and self-management of users or investment and construction of intelligent express box production enterprises and user leasing to lay an intelligent express box system in the service area. Based on the Internet of Things and cloud computing, the system uses RFID, infrared sensing technology, GPS(BDS), laser scanning and other technologies to realize information exchange and communication in the express Internet of Things system. The retail self-pick-up point system is to set up temporary pick-up points for express delivery in a series of retail stores close to users. So far, the “express+retail self-promotion” mode has formed a certain scale in Shenzhen, Beijing, Shanghai and other cities. The self-promotion system can solve the problem of time limit for working people. Can help enterprises to implement fixed-point delivery of express mail, without door-to-door service, and reduce operating costs; It is beneficial to reduce distribution personnel and labor costs.
4) Distribution Route Optimization System Distribution route optimization is based on the system’s concept of resource conservation, information management service system and self-service system, and designs and improves the distribution route of express terminal service system. Facing the characteristics of scattered users, small batches and many repeated routes in the end delivery of express delivery, a two-stage route optimization method is designed. In the first stage, the information management service system is used to analyze the distribution map of regional users in charge of the service center, and the service area is divided into small areas, with classification indexes including traffic volume, user types, etc. In the second stage, according to the classification results, optimize the layout of the self-extracting point service system. For example, large-density self-extracting point networks should be set up in areas with large traffic volume and mostly white-collar users. At the same time, optimize the manual service route to ensure that the express can be delivered to the users with the least time and cost.
4. Conclusion and Prospect “Express Terminal Service Center” is established on the basis of integrating high-quality network resources at the end of express delivery. Because of its independent operation, it can be regarded as a third-party agent of express delivery enterprises, and it can carry out joint delivery service of express terminal express through centralized contracting of express delivery enterprises. The idea of establishing “express terminal service center” is to integrate express terminal resources and implement common distribution. There are many business vacuum links in the traditional express terminal operation system. Through the development of related businesses-advertising, resource recovery and commodity experience, we can break the single mode of service at the express delivery terminal and improve the service quality at the express delivery terminal. At the same time, dredging the terminal business process and building the express terminal service support system can also fundamentally improve customer satisfaction.
Perhaps the express terminal operation mode proposed in this paper cannot be realized in a short period of time, but in the long run, the integration of resources, diversification and enrichment of services, resource conservation and environmental protection will inevitably become the development trend of express terminal services.